Saner, R, 2007, Development Diplomacy by Non-State Actors: an emerging form of multi-stakeholder Diplomacy

Conventional definitions of diplomacy previously reserved for state actors increasingly apply to non-state actors such as non-governmental organisations, civil society organisations, and international organisations. Development policy and intervention in the form of development aid has been reserved in the past to interactions between state actors such donor countries (developed countries) and beneficiary countries (developing or transition countries). While non-governmental organisations have always been active in the field of development aid as providers of services, they have not openly become political actors in the development policy field until recently.

Yiu, L; Saner, R, 2007, CSEND, Development Diplomacy and Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers for Least Developed Countries: Non-State Actor Advocacy and Multistakeholder Diplomacy

This article describes in detail the application of development diplomacy in the context of international co-operation for poverty reduction in Highly Indebted Poor Countries. In particular, the authors describe the goal of the International Labour Organisation--a non-state actor--in advocating the inclusion of employment and Decent Work Agenda policies in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers, an instrument developed by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. In order to achieve such inclusion, the International Labour Organisation mandated CSEND to create an advocacy based guidebook and negotiations simulation in order to influence future Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper negotiations.

Saner, R; Yiu, L, (2004) Organisational Culture of UN Agencies: The Need for Diplomats to Manage Porous Boundary Phenomena

Diplomats responsible for interfacing with UN Agencies need to recognise and manage overt and covert aspects of the Organisational Culture of UN Agencies, which are distinct from mainstream public and private sector organisations. Particular features of UN organisational cultures for instance often consist of complex informal organisational structures, multiple political interference's (external and internal), inter-cultural value differences of staff and different management practices. Porous Boundary Phenomena from the authors' point of view is one of the major factors which impose constraints on the performance of UN and in itself mirrors the client system that the UN is serving.

Effective Business Diplomacy

Raymond Saner, “Effective Business Diplomacy”

Governments use economic and commercial diplomacy to represent their interests abroad and at home1. However, Indian companies are less aware that they need to develop their own diplomatic competencies in order to be successful abroad and to be less dependent on information and guidelines provided by their Embassies abroad.

Labour Rights as Human Rights: Evaluating the policy coherence of USA, EU and Australia through trade agreements and their participation in the Universal Periodic Review

Raymond Saner, Angad Keith & Lichia Yiu

The purpose of this study is to find policy coherence, or lack thereof, in the labour provisions contained in the Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) of the United States of America, the European Union and Australia when compared to their interactions in the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) Sessions with their trade partners and to the official trio of UPR documents made available during these sessions. Over the past decade these countries have entered into various free trade agreements with developing and developed countries alike. However, it is their trade agreements with developing countries that are of particular interest.