by Raymond Saner, Lichia Saner Yiu with Nathan Eyasu & Kagan Rowland

Humanitarian Encyclopedia, Geneva Centre of Humanitarian Studies

University of Geneva, 23rd April 2024

Enable Agripreneurship of Smallholder Farmers in Developing Countries

Raymond Saner and Lichia Yiu
(Summary of the Research Study Report, “Closing policy gaps to enable agripreneurship of smallholder farmers in developing countries”, 2023, Saner & Yiu with Roberts, part of the Working Paper series on Development Policies, FERDI, Paris.

IMF Conditionalities for the Least Developed Countries

Raymond Saner & Ricardo Guilherme, G-24 Policy Brief Nr. 19; 1st March 2014 IMF Conditionalities for the Least Developed Countries.

This policy brief argues that, all too often, the Fund’s use of “conditionalities” for lending has stepped beyond its core legal mandate, particularly causing harm to the least developed countries’ economic development, for example by dictating their trade policies.

“Digital Black Box: CSO participation in AI-based surveys” Side-event at 2024 UNECE Regional Forum for Sustainable Development

The panel tackled the issue of the Digital Black Box and offered preliminary ideas on enhancing CSO participation in the UN and IOs. The goal was to pave the way for a more transparent, inclusive, and effective engagement in the digital age. The session focused on the challenges posed by the 'Black Box' trap of digital platforms of UN and International Organisations, which instead of fostering engagement, are currently hindering the involvement of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs). Is it a technological challenge due to insufficient financial and technical resources necessary for enhancing UN transparency and openness? Or is it the lack of a clear policy mandate and a clear code of conduct on what constitutes CSO engagement and participation?


The WTO, Climate Change and Sustainable Development

Raymond Saner (2024) “The WTO, Climate Change and Sustainable Development” (accepted for publication to be published as IJSD 2024 V27 N3)

The author contributes to the trade & environment debate that so far excluded theoretical concepts such as the principle of mutual supportiveness of international agreements, the insights of public goods theory, and a positive trade & environment agenda.

Based on the inclusion of these new concepts, an enlarged frame of trade, environment, and development is proposed which forms the basis for a reinterpretation of standard WTO articles making a more inclusive approach possible to stop climate change. For instance, the Local Content Requirement is discussed as a means to support citizens of developing countries to generate their renewable energy sources combined with a reinterpretation of Intellectual Property Rights to make the transfer of technology possible of renewable energy in the less developed parts of the world.