It is widely accepted that the successful implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (2030 Agenda) for the benefit of least developed countries will require boundary spanning by United Nations agencies, G20 countries and leading development nongovernmental organizations. Realization of the Sustainable Development Goals also requires cross-sector cooperation and crossinstitutional cooperation among international organizations mandated by G20 members to implement their own development strategies for the poor.

However, international organizations are not sufficiently equipped to deal with the cross-sector and cross-institutional cooperation needed to achieve the goals, commonly known as the SDGs. They also are often not at ease in cooperating with leading nongovernmental and philanthropic organizations – even when operating in the same policy space.


Raymond Saner & Lichia Yiu, “The 2030 Agenda: no poverty reduction without policy coherence” G20 Germany 2017, Think 20 Dialogue, DIE Bonn, 28 March 2017

G20 member countries play a crucial role in international organisations by the collective size of their economies and combined political weight, both of which are needed to make the policies of international organisations as coherent as possible to reduce poverty in Least Developed Countries (LDCs).

Raymond Saner, Lichia Yiu; (2002) External Stakeholder Impacts on Official and Non-Official Third-Party Interventions to Resolve Malignant Conflicts: The case of a failed intervention in Cyprus; CSEND, Geneva and shorter version in International Negotiations”, 6,3, 2001 ed. William Zartman

This paper focuses on the potentially positive and negative impact which multiple and competing external stakeholders (influential foreign powers, supranational institutions, intergovernmental organizations and NGOs from various countries) can have on official and non-official third-party peace building initiatives. The example selected in this article describes a Swiss NGO initiated inter-communal project on Cyprus. It analyzes the causes, primarily by external and to a lesser degree by internal stakeholders, which have negatively impacted this confidence-building project. The article is descriptive and narrative due to the fact that access to confidential information of key stakeholder governments and institutions remains limited. The aim of the authors is to use field experience to further develop theory and practice of official and non-official third-party intervention in a context of a persistent and malignant conflict characterized by multi-external stakeholder interferences, as is the case with the long-lasting conflict on Cyprus.

“The success of a negotiation is not a coincidence, but the result of careful planning. A person who has reflected and written about negotiations is Raymond Saner, a professor at the University of Basel in Switzerland, and lecturer at the prestigious Institute of Political Science of Paris (Sciences Po ). He has been for more than 20 years a consultant to the United Nations on the impact of globalization. These topics and challenges brought him to Bolivia, where he worked with dedication and left with many friends and colleagues.”

This book chapter describes the professional culture of a diplomat and compares the professional requirements of the past with the challenges of the present and discusses the emerging requirements of the future professional role of a diplomat.

Article (German)